There is often a demand for a short, sharp definition of racism, for example as captured in the popular formula Power + Prejudice= Racism. But in reality, racism is a complex, multidimensional phenomenon that cannot be captured by such definitions. In our world today there are a variety of racisms at play, and it is necessary to distinguish between issues such as individual prejudice, and systemic racisms which entrench racialiazed inequalities over time. This Very Short Introduction explores the history of racial ideas and a wide range of racisms - biological, cultural, colour-blind, and structural - and illuminates issues that have been the subject of recent debates. Is Islamophobia a form of racism? Is there a new antisemitism? Why has whiteness become an important source of debate? What is Intersectionality? What is unconscious or implicit bias, and what is its importance in understanding racial discrimination? Ali Rattansi tackles these questions, and also shows why African Americans and other ethnic minorities in the USA and Europe continue to suffer from discrimination today that results in ongoing disadvantage in these white dominant societies. Finally he explains why there has been a resurgence of national populist and far-right movements and explores their implications for the future of racism. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.